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How Ancient Cultures Explained Eclipses. (Video)

How Ancient Cultures Explained Eclipses. 
A Shout Out to My Flat Earther Buddies.
This video is taken from an article called “How Ancient Cultures Explained  Eclipses”. It is featured in an online publication called “the Conversation” and was written by Roger Culver, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Colorado State University.

I recently saw a couple of videos posted by Flat Earthers who say that the coming Eclipse is a lie and proof that we live on a Flat Earth.  They say that astronomers are hard press to prove that the Sun which is 93 million miles away and yay big could possibly be eclipse by a moon that is so much smaller and so much closer to the Earth.

Personally, I am not too sure about this argument for the flat earth because that type of shadowing can be done when you position beam of light at a certain distance where it can be obstructed by another object in its path, causing a third object in the line of sight, to have a shadow cast upon it. But let’s take a look at what the Ancient Cultures have said.

How ancient cultures explained eclipses

by Roger CulverColorado State University
The Conversation

File 20170816 10024 1ucrul3
A 1765 painting of Helios,
the personification of the sun
 in Greek mythology. Wikimedia Commons

On August 21, a total solar eclipse will be visible across parts of the United States.
As the Earth and moon sweep through space in their annual journey around the sun, the three bodies align in such a way that the Earth passes into the shadow of the moon. Observers then witness a sun that is gradually covered and uncovered by the moon’s disk – a spectacular celestial event.

But until astronomers were able to explain this phenomenon, a solar eclipse could be a terrifying event. In many cultures throughout human history, the sun was seen as an entity of supreme importance, crucial to their very existence. It was regularly worshipped as a god – Amun-Ra to the Egyptians and Helios to the Greeks – or as a goddess, such as Amaterasu for the Japanese and Saule for many Baltic cultures.

One reason the sun served as a god or goddess in so many cultures was its awesome power: Looking directly at it would severely damages the eyes, a sign of the sun diety’s wrath.
So the idea that the sun deity could be temporarily extinguished in a total eclipse inspired a number of imaginative explanations. Most involve some sort of evil entity trying to devour the sun. Such myths undoubtedly arose from the fact that during the early stages of a solar eclipse, the sun appears to have a bite taken out of it.

The various creatures include the Vikings’ sky wolves Skoll and Hati, a Chinese dragon, a Vietnamese frog and assorted Roman demons. In many cultures, it was believed that such creatures could be driven off by creating as much loud noise as possible: yelling, ringing bells, and banging pots and pans.
Perhaps the most creative version of this strand of mythologies comes from certain branches of Hindu culture. In that version, the mortal Rahu is said to have attempted to attain immortality. The sun and moon told the god Visnu of Rahu’s transgression. As punishment, Visnu decapitated Rahu.

Ever since, Rahu has sought to exact vengeance on the sun and the moon by pursuing them across the sky to eat them. Once in a while – at the time of an eclipse – Rahu actually catches the sun or the moon. In the case of a solar eclipse, Rahu slowly devours the sun, and it gradually disappears into Rahu’s throat – only to reappear from his severed neck.

Rahu swallowing the moon.
Anandajoti BhikkhuCC BY

In other branches of Hindu culture, the “sun eater” took the more traditional form of a dragon. To fight this beast, certain Hindu sects in India immersed themselves up to the neck in water in an act of worship, believing that the adulation would aid the sun in fighting off the dragon.
Other cultures had equally ingenious explanations for – and defenses against – a total solar eclipse. Eskimos thought an eclipse meant that the sun and moon had become temporarily diseased. In response, they’d cover up everything of importance – themselves included – lest they be infected by the “diseased” rays of the eclipsed sun.

For the Ojibwe tribe of the Great Lakes, the onset of total eclipse represented an extinguished sun. To prevent permanent darkness, they proceeded to fire flaming arrows at the darkened sun in an attempt to rekindkle it.
Amidst the plethora of the myths and legends and interpretations of this strange event, there are seeds of understanding about their true nature.

For example, the famed total solar eclipse of May 28, 585 B.C., occurred in the middle of a battle between the Medes and the Lydians in what is now the northeast region of modern-day Turkey. The eclipse actually ended the conflict on the spot, with both sides interpreting the event as a sign of the displeasure from the gods. But based on the writings of the ancient Greek historian Heroditus, it’s thought that the great Greek philosopher-mathematician Thales of Miletus had, coincidentally, predicted its occurrence.

Chinese, Alexandrian and Babylonian astronomers were also said to be sophisticated enough to not only understand the true nature of solar eclipses, but also to roughly predict when the “dragon” would come to devour the sun. (As with much knowledge back then, however, astronomical and astrological findings were relayed only to the ruling elites, while myths and legends continued to percolate among the general population.)

Advances in modern astronomy have given us detailed explanations for solar eclipses, to the extent that their time and location can be predicted centuries into the future and reconstructed from centuries ago.

The ConversationOf course, mythologies surrounding total solar eclipses still exist today. Some conspiracy theorists say this year’s eclipse will cause the end of the world – perhaps a testament to the endurance of the superstitious side of the human psyche.

Roger Culver, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Colorado State University
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Swastikas Are Cross Cultural

7,000-Year-Old Swastika Pottery Discovered

 

A pottery fragment with the image of a swastika, dating to 7,000 years ago, and an ancient female adornment with a phallus are among the artifacts shown for the first time as part of the on-going exhibition “Gods, Symbols and Ancient Signs” in the museum in Vratsa in north-western Bulgaria.

The swastika-decorated clay pottery fragment was found by archaeologists during excavations of a ritual pit around the village of Altimir near the town of Vratsa.

The ancient find dates back to before the Copper Age and was used prominently by  many civilizations for many millennia.  This find adds to the notion that this symbol traverses the globe as well as the centuries and cannot be linked solely to Hitler’s party, archaeologists explained.



If you want to see just how deeply rooted the swastika pattern is in Europe, a good place to start is Kiev where the National Museum of the History of Ukraine has a small ivory figurine of a female bird. Made from the tusk of a mammoth, it was found in 1908 at the Paleolithic settlement of Mezin near the Russian border. On the torso of the bird is engraved an intricate pattern of joined up swastikas. It’s the oldest identified swastika pattern in the world and has been radio carbon-dated to an astonishing 15,000 years ago.

The Aztec and the ancient Mayan civilizations used the powerful symbol on burial mounds, clothing, and jewelry. 

In Europe, such symbols can be found in Roman catacombs, in churches, on plaza stones, and graves. Although it was commonly used all over much of the world without stigma and still occurs widely in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism, the swastika has become stigmatized in the Western world, because of its iconic usage in Nazi Germany. 

Hiroshi Ōshima, the former Japanese Ambassador to Germany during the NAZI political era, believed that the noble castes in Japan, the Daimyo and the Samurai, were descended from gods of celestial origin, which was similar to Himmler’s own belief that “the Nordic race did not evolve, but came directly down from heaven to settle on the Atlantic continent.”

A swastika (卐) crossed by two arrows, within a shield and surmounted by a royal crown on an orange background was used as the coat of arms of the Samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in the early 17th century.

The swastika symbol is a very commonly displayed and can also be seen, turning in either direction, on ancient Greek and Roman artifacts, often minted on the world’s oldest known coins.
 

The Anasazi people built dwellings in caves and recesses in canyon walls throughout the southwest United States from 1500 B.C. to 1350 A.D. They left many red-haired Caucasoid mummies with swastika artifacts, and even have a site called “Mummy Cave”, however any further study on their remains is prohibited.

Anasazi is a Navajo word that means “ancient stranger”, “enemy ancestor”, or “ancient enemy.” The Navajo Indians began occupying the area in the early 1700s, and also prominently used the Swastika.
 


In 1940, four tribes of Arizona Indians, the Navajos, Papagos, Apaches, and Hopis, banned the use of their ancient traditional swastika symbol from all designs in their basket weaving and blanket making.

Carved out of volcanic rock in eastern Africa, these are the famous cross-shaped churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia. According to Ethiopian legend, they were built by angels, and are filled with swastika symbols.


In the middle east there are examples such as the Golden Rhyton and a beautiful gold necklace of Swastikas found in Northern Iran, dating back 3,000 years to the first millennium B.C.


The site of Samarra lies about 60 miles north of modern Bhagdad. On the left below is a dish with four (4) women composing a Swastika, Samarra period (fifth millennium B.C.) The Iraqi Museum – Baghdad. On the right below is The Samarra bowl (5000 BC), at the Pergamonmuseum, Berlin.
 

The snake diety of the Maya was Kukulkan (“Plumed Serpent”, “Feathered Serpent”), also known as  Quetzalcoatl to the Aztec.

In Peru this ancient blue eyed bearded sun-god was called Amaru and the territory known as Amaruca.

Amaruca is literally translated “Land of the Serpents”. Some anthropologists have sided with locals and claimed that the name of America was derived from Amaruca, instead of after the explorer Amerigo Vespucci.

This theory may sound controversial or unlikely to some, but what is irrefutable is that their civilization widely used, and held reverence for, the swastika symbol; the same symbol found spread out all over the world since the dawn of time… but by whom?


Pasted from: http://atlanteangardens.blogspot.com/2014/04/7000-year-old-swastika-pottery.html

The Swastika (also known as the gammadion cross, cross cramponnée, or wanzi) (as a character: 卐 or 卍) is a symbol that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross, with its four legs bent at 90 degrees.[1][2] It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

It has been used as a decorative element in various cultures since at least the Neolithic, and is found on a man’s tunic depicted in a Roman mosaic at the Villa Romana del Casale in Sicily. It also appears on a mosaic floor at the Lullingstone Roman Villa in Kent, England. It is known most widely as an important symbol long used in Indian religions, denoting “auspiciousness.” It was adopted as such in pre-World War I-Europe and later, and most notably, by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany prior to World War II. In many Western countries, the swastika has been highly stigmatized because of its use in and association with Nazism. It continues to be commonly used as a religious symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Western literature’s older term for the symbol, gammadion cross, derives mainly from its appearance, which is identical to four Greek gamma letters affixed to each other.[5] The name swastika comes from the Sanskrit word svastika (Devanagari: स्वस्तिक), meaning “lucky or auspicious object”.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swastika 

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